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Government Of Assam Health & Family Welfare Directorate of Health Service [Family Welfare]

Family Planning

  • What is Family Planning:

    The practice of controlling the number of children one has and the intervals between their births, particularly by means of contraception or voluntary sterilization.

    AIM of Family planning:

    To control population by accepting different family planning method

    Benefits of family planning / contraception:

    Preventing pregnancy-related health risks in women

    o   Delay in pregnancies

    o   Prevents unplanned pregnancies.

    o   Family planning ensures healthy mothers and healthy babies. 

    Broader Benefits of FP/ contraception:

    Reducing infant mortality

    By spacing pregnancies

    Helping to prevent HIV/AIDS

    It also helps  prevent of AIDS/HIV by using condoms.

    Empowering people and enhancing education

    A smaller family allows parents to invest more in each child.

    Opportunity for women to pursue additional education and participate in public life

    Reducing adolescent pregnancies

    Contraceptives keeps to prevent adolescent pregnancy.

    Slowing population growth

    • Family planning is key to reach and mantain the Total Fertility Rate (TFR) of 2.1 i.e. replacement level.
    • Reduce teenage pregnancy
    • Reduce Infant Mortality Rate (IMR) and Maternal Mortality Ratio (MMR).

    Factors which influence Population Growth

    1. Unmet need of Family Planning: 
    1. Age at Marriage and first childbirth

    Types of contraception available in health institutions as well as front line workers at free of cost:

    Spacing methods / Temporary:

    • OCP (Mala-N)
    • Condom (Nirodh)( For Male)
    • IUCD (380A and 375)
    • Inject able DMPA (Antara)
    • Emergency Contraceptive Pill (Ezy Pill)

    Limiting/Permanent methods:

    • Vasectomy (Conventional and NSV: male)
    • Tubectomy (Minilap and Laparoscopy: Female)

    1. Emergency Contraceptive Pills (ECPs)

    Emergency Contraception:

    Method of Contraception that is used within 72 Hrs of unprotected intercourse to prevent pregnancy also called "Morning after" or post-coital contraception.

    Reasons for Using Emergency Contraception

    A Woman who had an unprotected sex and she wants to prevent pregnancy.

    Govt. of Assam provides EC Pills at Govt. Health Institutions free of cost.

    When Should ECPs be taken?

    The ECPs should be taken as soon as possible should be taken within 72 hours after intercourse.

    2. In Tra Uterine Devices (IUDs) Copper-bearing IUDs

    Mechanism of action

    Prevent sperms and egg from meeting.

    Perhaps makes movement of sperm difficult, reduces the ability of sperm to fertilize egg.

    Possibly prevents egg from being emplaned in wall of uterus

    3. Male Sterilization –Vasectomy

    Vasectomy is the safest and effective Family Planning method for male as there are only few contraceptive methods available for male.

     How does it Work?

    A small opening made in the man's scrotum and the Vas deferens on either side are closed off.

    This keeps sperms out of his semen. The man can still have erections and ejaculate semen.

    His semen, however, no longer makes a woman pregnant because it has no sperms in it.

    Female Sterilization

    Types of female Sterilization Two broad categories: LAPROSCOPY & LAPROTOMY

    Procedures for reaching the fallopian tubes (Primarily abdominal)

    Minilaparotomy - laparoscopy – laparotomy

    Ligation and excision

    Mechanical devices such as clips or rings

    Electro coagulation


    Very effective method of contraception also Permanent method.

    The Laparoscopy procedure

    It is outdoor procedure. It is very safe and effective method.

    After the procedure, the woman should

    • Rest for 2 or 3 days and avoid heavy lifting for a week
    • Keep the incision clean and dry for 2-3 days.
    •  Not have sex for at least one week, or until all pain is gone.

     Common causes of female sterilization failure

    o   If pregnancy test not done before sterilization operation

    o   Incomplete or inadequate occlusion of the fallopian tube.

    o   Misplacement of mechanical device.